The Surprisingly Interesting History of Winter Landscape Painting, Pt. 2/4: 1870-1900

Hey folks! I hope you enjoyed part 1 of this 4-part series from a couple days ago. I’ve now finished compiling part 2. I’m going to go ahead and repost most of my introduction from the first post explaining and providing some background for this weird project. The paintings follow. Here you go:

[M]y latest obsession—as odd and passionate as any—has actually been the history of winter landscape painting. Yep, you read that right. [For weeks] I have spent several hours every day scouring the internet in search of awe-inspiring winter landscapes from art history. My tired eyes have scanned thousands of paintings, and I’ve finally come up with a list of 400 or so that I want to share with you in chronological order—a diverse selection which I think will beautifully illustrate the story of winter landscape painting (at least in the West). And may I just say: it’s not as boring as it sounds! In fact, I think it’s riveting stuff. I hope you will agree.

How, you may ask, did I become so fixated on such a bizarre topic? Well, like many folks, I’ve long enjoyed the glittering and austere beauty of winter landscapes. … [But] I only became interested in this particular topic—the history of winter landscape painting—when my wife posted an article from NPR over the holidays called “These Artists Will Change Your Mind About Winter” by Susan Stamberg. It contains some great lesser-known examples of winter landscapes as well as some fun commentary. “For me,” Stamberg writes, “the perfect way to experience snow is to see it hanging on the wall of a great museum!” I can empathize.

Anyway, that article sparked my interest and led me to do a quick search of other lists of winter landscape paintings from art history. What I found was that most of the lists—such as here, here, here, and here—recycled the same dozen or so famous winter landscapes with not that much variation. There has to be more than just these, I thought. In fact, I knew there was. I knew enough about the massive and diverse history of Western painting to know that there was indeed much more to winter landscape painting.

Yet, it’s certainly not a well-known subgenre. If I think back to my Art History courses in college, there were very few examples of winter scenes. If you could somehow list the 1,000 most popular paintings in the Western public’s imagination, probably no more than 10 would feature any snow or ice, and pretty much all of those 10 paintings would be by either Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Caspar David Friedrich, or Claude Monet. That’s what we think of when we think of winter landscapes—and to be sure, those guys are the greatest pioneers of the genre, but there’s much more to it. Despite the traditional aversion to landscape and nature-centered painting in the West prior to the Northern Renaissance, winter has been a big part of Western life. In much of Europe and North America, global warming notwithstanding, snow and ice have been pretty regular features of life for about a quarter of every year, and that was especially true during the so-called “Little Ice Age” which lasted from about 1300 to 1700.

Thus, to get at last to the point, after several weeks of digging I’m ready to start sharing my list with you. It is of course hardly a definitive or even exhaustive list—I’m quite confident in fact that there are still hundreds more stunning winter masterpieces to be discovered, particularly in non-Western and more contemporary art traditions, but I just can’t stand to stare at screens anymore right now. That said, because the list is so long—having, as I said, ballooned to well over 400—I’ve decided to break it up into these four batches:

1.) 1400-1870: This batch goes from the late Medieval period through the Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, Romantic, and Realist periods in Western art history to the early days of Impressionism, which began in the mid-1860s. It also includes landscapes from the golden era of Japanese printmaking.

2.) 1870-1900: This batch encompasses most of the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist periods—in which there was A LOT of landscape painting being done—as well as the tail-end of the (official) Realist period.

3.) 1900-1930: This batch includes a bunch of works from the Expressionist movement, as well as occasional works from the Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Fauvist, Cubist, and Surrealist movements. It also includes a lot of paintings from North American iterations of Impressionism (e.g., Group of Seven painters) and Regionalism/Realism.

4.) 1930-2020: This last batch is a mix of all kinds of things, mostly from North America, though it largely avoids the abstract and pop-art styles dominant in Western art in the post-WWII era—mainly because there aren’t a lot of obvious “winter landscapes” by abstract artists. Most of these paintings range in style from Regionalism/Realism to modern variations of Impressionism and Expressionism. It’s a very mixed bag.

Ultimately, while winter landscape painting may not be the most exciting genre of art history, I have found that it is a fascinating and illuminating lens through which to view the development of Western art. I hope you too garner some insights from these lists, and find a few works that you too enjoy. Feel free to share your favorites in the comments.

Here, therefore, is the second batch, with paintings spanning ~1870-1900:

1.) Alexey Savrasov – The Rooks Have Returned (1871)

2.) Walter Launt Palmer – Albany in the Snow (1871)

3.) Camille Pissarro – Street Winter Sunlight and Snow (1872)

4.) Alexei Savrasov – Winter (1873)

5.) Alfred Sisley – The Frost (1873)

6.) Ludvig Munthe – Winter Atmosphere (1873)

7.) Ludvig Munthe – Winter Landscape (1873)

8.) Alfred Sisley – Snow at Louveciennes (1874)

9.) Camille Pissarro – Effect of Snow with Cows at Montfoucault (1874)

10.) Camille Pissarro – The Road to L’Hermitage in Snow (1874)

11.) Claude Monet – Snow at Argenteuil (1874)

12.) Gustave Courbet – Snow (1874)

13.) Alfred Sisley – The Effect of Snow at Argenteuil (1875)

14.) Camille Pissarro – Winter at Montfoucault (1875)

15.) Claude Monet – Boulevard Saint-Denis, Argenteuil, in Winter (1875)

16.) Claude Monet – Snow at Argenteuil (1875)

17.) Claude Monet – Snow at Argenteuil (1875)

18.) Claude Monet – Snow Effect, The Street in Argenteuil (1875)

19.) Claude Monet – The Lane in Epinay, Snow Effect (1875)

20.) Claude Monet – Train in the Snow (1875)

21.) Claude Monet – Train in the Snow at Argenteuil (1875)

22.) Jakub Schikaneder – Street in the Evening, Prague (1875)

23.) Louis Apol – A January Evening in the Woods of The Hague (1875)

24.) James Abbot McNeill Whistler – Nocturne in Grey and Gold: Chelsea Snow (1876)

25.) Norbert Goeneutte – The Boulevard de Clichy Under Snow 1876

26.) Ivan Aivazovsky – Ice-Breakers on the Frozen Neva Lake in St. Petersburg (1877)

27.) Alfred Sisley – Snow at Louveciennes (1878)

28.) Anton Mauve – Snow Storm (1878)

29.) Gustave Caillebotte – Rooftops in the Snow (1878)

30.) Alfred Sisley – Mooring Lines, the Effect of Snow at Saint-Cloud (1879)

31.) Claude Monet – The Road to Vetheuil in Winter (1879)

32.) Paul Gauguin – Winter Landscape (1879)

33.) Gustave Caillebotte – Boulevard Haussmann Snow (1879-81)

34.) John Henry Twachtman – Winter in Cincinnati (1879-82)

35.) Anton Mauve – Riders in the Snow in the Haagse Bos (1880)

36.) Berthe Morisot – Snowy Landscape (1880)

37.) Claude Monet – Floating Ice Near Vetheuil (1880)

38.) Claude Monet – The Breakup of the Ice (1880)

39.) Daniel Ridgway Knight – In Winter (1880)

40.) Fanny Churberg – Winter Landscape, Evening Atmosphere (1880)

41.) Joseph Heydendahl – Abendliche Winterlandschaft (1880s/90s?)

42.) Walter Launt Palmer – Winter Light and Shadows (1880s/90s?)

43.) Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski – Samotny Wilk (1880s?)

44.) Anton Mauve – Winter in Laren, Holland (1880s?)

45.) Carl Skånberg – Mosebacke Square (1880s?)

46.) Eugene Galien-Laloue – Paris Street Scene – On the Seine (1880s?)

47.) Julius von Klever – Winter Landscape (1880s?)

48.) Magnus Hjalmar Munsterhjelm – Early Spring Moon (1880s?)

49.) Edvard Munch – View from Vossveien 7 Towards Bergfjerdingen (1881)

50.) Heinrich Gogarten – Sunset Over the Winter Forest (1881)

51.) Nikolai Sverchkov – Returning from a Bear Hunt (1881)

52.) Vincent van Gogh – Winter (1881)

53.) Anders Andersen-Lundby – Wintery Landscape with a Farmer Leading a Horsewagon (1882)

54.) Anders Andersen-Lundby – A Busy Town in Moonlight (Detail) (1882)

55.) Bruno Liljefors – Sledging (1882)

56.) Edvard Munch – Fra Saxegårdsgate (1882)

57.) John Henry Twachtman – An Early Winter (1882)

58.) Teodor Axentowicz – Hutsul Funeral (1882)

59.) Frants Henningsen – A Funeral, Assistens Cemetery in Nørrebro (1883)

60.) Isaac Ilyich Levitan – Boulevard in the Evening (1883)

61.) Joseph Farquharson – The Joyless Winter Day (1883)

62.) Magnus Hjalmar Munsterhjelm – October Evening After the First Snowfall (1883)

63.) Paul Gauguin – Snow, Rue Carcel (1883)

64.) Alfred Sisley – Snow Effect at Veneux 2 (1884)

65.) Claude Monet – Road to Giverny in Winter (1885)

66.) Hans Andersen Brendekilde – Cutting Christmas Trees in the Forest (1885)

67.) Isaac Ilyich Levitan – Forest in the Winter (1885)

68.) Vincent van Gogh – The Parsonage Garden in Nuenen in the Snow (1885)

69.) Childe Hassam – At Dusk (Boston Common at Twilight) (1885-6)

70.) Anton Mauve – Winter Landscape at Sunset (1885-7)

71.) Childe Hassam – A City Fairyland (1886)

72.) Claude Monet – Snow Effect At Falaise (1886)

73.) Georg von Rosen – The Explorer A.E. Nordenskiöld (1886)

74.) Paul Signac – Snow, Boulevard de Clichy, Paris (1886)

75.) Charles Marion Russell – Waiting for a Chinook (1886–7)

76.) Alf Wallander – New Year’s Morning (1887)

77.) Ferdinand Hodler – Die Lawine (The Avalanche) (1887)

78.) Julius von Klever – Woman Walking Down the Road Through the Trees (1887)

79.) Paul Gauguin – Winter Landscape, Snow Effect (1888)

80.) Vincent van Gogh – Landscape with Snow (1888)

81.) Vincent van Gogh – Snowy Landscape with Arles in the Background (1888)

82.) William Blair Bruce – The Phantom Hunter (1888)

83.) Jan van Chelminski – Napoleon’s Troops Retreating from Moscow (1888-9)

84.) Anders Anderson-Lundby – Wooded River Landscape with Stream and Lake Beyond (Detail) (1889)

85.) Christian Krohg – The Struggle for Existence (1889)

86.) Georg Pauli – Winter Evening at Söder, Stockholm (1889)

87.) Ludvig Munthe – Vintersol (Winter Sun) (1889)

88.) Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt – Winter Day in Helsinki Market Square (1890)

89.) Alexei Savrasov – Forest in the Frost (1890)

90.) Anders Andersen-Lundby – Giesing Near Munchen (1890)

91.) Guillaume Vogels – Sunset over Snow (1890)

92.) Paul Gustave Fischer – Skating Runners at Peblinges Lake in Copenhagen (1890)

93.) Theodore Robinson – Winter in New York City (1890)

94.) Vincent van Gogh – Snow-Covered Field with a Harrow (after Millet) (1890)

95.) Winslow Homer – Winter Coast (1890)

96.) Winslow Homer – Sleigh Ride (1890-5)

97.) Albert-Charles Lebourg – Rouen, Snow Effect (1890s?)

98.) Joseph Farquharson – A Flock of Sheep in a Snowstorm (1890s?)

99.) Alfred Sisley – Rue Eugène Moussoir at Moret: Winter (1891)

100.) Claude Monet – Grainstacks, Snow Effect (1891)

101.) Claude Monet – Grainstack in the Morning, Snow Effect (1891)

102.) Claude Monet – Wheatstacks, Snow Effect, Morning (1891)

103.) Frits Thaulow – Cottages in the Snow (1891)

104.) Frits Thaulow – Farmyard in the Snow (1891)

105.) Ivan Shishkin – In the Wild North (1891)

106.) Józef Chełmoński – Partridges in the Snow (1891)

107.) Ludvig Munthe – Winterdämmerung (Winter Twilight) 1891

108.) Childe Hassam – Fifth Avenue in Winter (1892)

109.) George Inness – Home at Montclair (1892)

110.) Rudolf Koller – Sleigh Ride (1892)

111.) Alfred Sisley – A Village Street in Winter (1893)

112.) Ludvig Munthe – Zwei Rehe im Abendlichen Winterwald (Two Deer in the Winter Evening Forest) (1893)

113.) Winslow Homer – The Fox Hunt (1893)

114.) John Henry Twachtman – Winter Harmony (1893-1900)

115.) Claude Monet – Ice Floes, Misty Morning (1894)

116.) Frits Thaulow – Skiers at the Top of a Snow-Covered Hill (1894)

117.) Kobayashi Kiyochika – Scouting Party Near Niuzhuang on a Snowy Night (1894)

118.) Paul Gauguin – Breton Village in the Snow (1894)

119.) Camille Pissarro – Morning Sunlight on the Snow, Eragny-sur-Epte (1895)

120.) Claude Monet – Mount Kolsaas 2 (1895)

121.) Claude Monet – Mount Kolsaas in Misty Weather (1895)

122.) Claude Monet – Mount Kolsaas, Sun Effect (1895)

123.) Claude Monet – The Houses in the Snow, Norway (1895)

124.) Frederic Remington – The Fall of the Cowboy (1895)

125.) Frits Thaulow – A Château in Normandy (1895)

126.) Isaac Ilyich Levitan – Winter Landscape (1895)

127.) Konstantin Kryzhitsky – Early Snow (1895)

128.) Maurice Cullen – Moret, Winter (1895)

129.) Stanisław Witkiewicz – Halny Wind (1895)

130.) John Henry Twachtman – Snow (1895-6)

131.) Akseli Gallen-Kallela – Skaters on Lake Ruovesi (1896)

132.) Vilhelm Hammershoi – Søndermarken Park in Winter (1896)

133.) Gustaf Fjaestad – Cold Winter Evening (1897)

134.) Marie Bracquemond – Snow Landscape (1897)

135.) Mikhail Germashev – Snow (1897)

136.) Rosa Bonheur – Emigration de Bisons (Amérique) (Bison in the Snow) (1897)

137.) Karl Nordström – Svensk Vinterafton vid Roslagstull (Swedish Winter Evening) (1897-1900)

138.) Eero Järnefelt – Winter Seascape (1898)

139.) Joseph Farquharson – The Stormy Blast (1898)

140.) Alfred Bergström – Winter Scene from the Stockholm Waterfront (1899)

141.) Gustave Loiseau – Landscape in Snow (1899)

142.) Harald Viggo Moltke – The Northern Lights Over Iceland (1899)

143.) Pekka Halonen – Winter Sunset (1899)

144.) Childe Hassam – Late Afternoon, New York Winter (1900)

145.) Edvard Munch – Winter Night (1900)

146.) Edward Hopper – Cape Cod Winter (1900)

147.) Paul Gustav Fisher – A Street Scene in Winter, Copenhagen (1900)

148.) Pekka Halonen – Washing on the Ice (1900)

149.) Helmer Osslund – Spring in a Northern Landscape (1900s?)

150.) L. Birge Harrison – A Wintry Walk (1900s?)

151.) L. Birge Harrison – Christmas Eve (1900s?)

152.) L. Birge Harrison – Lower Town, Quebec (1900s?)

153.) L. Birge Harrison – Sunrise – A Break in the Ice (1900s?)

154.) Per Ekstrom – Sun and Snow Scene from Stockholm (1900s?)

Hope y’all enjoyed the second batch! Stay tuned for batches 3-4. Let me know if I missed anything.

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